Day 41 – Q 1.Do you think patriarchy as a dominant social feature has got diluted in the 21st century India? Critically examine.
1. Do you think patriarchy as a dominant social feature has got diluted in the 21st century India? Critically examine.
क्या आपको लगता है कि 21 वीं सदी के भारत में एक प्रमुख सामाजिक विशेषता के रूप में पितृसत्ता कमजोर पड़ गई है? समालोचनात्मक जांच करें।
Patriarchy is a social system in which men hold primary power, predominate in the roles of political leadership, moral authority, special privilege and control of the property. Men are also centre and authoritative figure in the domain of the family. Patriarchy has been one of the dominant features of Indian society.
21st century has brought many opportunities among women in social, economic and political domain.
Patriarchy as a dominant social feature has got diluted in the 21st century India
- Women movements have earned many rights to women in India. 33% reservation in Panchayat is one example of rising political equality in Indian Society.
- Women’s share in non-traditional employment has increased. 11.7% of India’s pilots are women (global average ~ 3%).
- Women’s recruitment in combat operation in army has now been planned.
- Under MGNREGA women’s participation has increased 50%.
- There are many SHGs successfully owned by women.
- Women’s movements, like #Metoo movement, have been very successful in recent times. There has been support by media and male members of the society. This signals shift in patriarchal mindset.
Patriarchy as a dominant social feature is still intact in the 21st century India
A quantitative picture of patriarchy can be gaged by Global Gender Gap Index, in which India ranks 108th/149 in 2018.
A quantitative and qualitative picture of patriarchy in India
- Literacy – female ~ 65%; male ~ 80% (2011 census)
- Males get more medical care compared to girls
- Son meta preference (less opportunity to come to the world)
- Child marriage ~ 27% (UNICEF)
- More women divorced and separated – This tells a story about India’s gender biases and how patriarchy operates.
- Female labour force participation rate ~ 26% (Niti Aayog)
- Gender pay gap ~ 34% (ILO)
- Glass ceiling
- Feminization of informal sector and de-feminization of formal sector.
- female representation in Parliament ~ 99th in the world
- Lok Sabha ~ 12%; Rajya Sabha ~ 11%.
Women are the largest untapped reservoir of talent in the world – Hillary Clinton. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar had said progress of community must be measured “degree of the progress of women”. Patriarchy is hindrance for overall development of India.