Day 62 – Q 5.What is your assessment of reservations in jobs and education as a tool of social empowerment? Substantiate your views.
5. What is your assessment of reservations in jobs and education as a tool of social empowerment? Substantiate your views.
सामाजिक सशक्तिकरण के एक उपकरण के रूप में नौकरियों और शिक्षा में आरक्षण पर आपका क्या आकलन है? अपने विचारों की पुष्टि करें।
The objective of reservation as envisioned by the founding fathers of the Constitution was to ensure social justice and empowerment. It was important to undo the historical injustice done to SC/STs. Reservation was extended to other backward classes under the recommendation of the Mandal Commission.
Assessment of reservations in jobs and education as a tool of social empowerment
- Government policy of reservation is based on the fact that economic backwardness is intricately linked with social backwardness. This is backed by NSSO data too. Comparison of NSSO data (2011-12) the between Dalit and upper caste households
- In rural areas – expenditure gap – ~ 37
- In urban areas- incomes gap ~ 65%
- Lack of education among SC/STs makes them uncompetitive at the entrance level. Hence reservation in educational institutions tries to bring parity.
- The Constitution (103rd Amendment) Act, 2019 for the very first time, economic class is constitutionally recognized as vulnerable section.
- Social deficiencies may exist beyond the concept of caste (Ram Singh case, 2015). This is recognised by the reservation policy.
However policy of reservation has been criticised on various ground
- Reservation is now being increasingly seen as the only tool available for upward social mobility.
- It perpetuates caste differentiation and encourages competition among communities at the expense of national unity.
- Only small new elite of educated Dalits, Adivasis, and OBCs benefit from reservations.
- Don’t do enough to lift the mass of people out of poverty.
- Women’s status has not substantially improved in the society due to patriarchy. India ranks 122th in WEF’s Gender Gap Index.
The Constitution envisages not just a formal equality of opportunity but also the achievement of substantive equality. Reservation can be just one tool in this regard. However social empowerment and universal access to services like education and health is necessary to make the fruits of reservation reach the last man in society.