Day 64 – Q 3.Energy has traditionally played an important role in global geopolitics, contributing to the rise of great powers, the formation of alliances and, in many cases, also to the emergence of wars and conflicts. Elucidate.
3. Energy has traditionally played an important role in global geopolitics, contributing to the rise of great powers, the formation of alliances and, in many cases, also to the emergence of wars and conflicts. Elucidate.
ऊर्जा ने पारंपरिक रूप से वैश्विक भूराजनीति में एक महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभाई है, महान शक्तियों के विकास में योगदान, गठबंधनों के गठन और, कई मामलों में, युद्धों और संघर्षों के उद्भव के लिए भी। स्पष्ट करें।
Geopolitics of energy as it is called has been playing a major role in global diplomacy and has been a decider of rise of great powers, allies and enemies. This has been especially true post-industrial revolution where in the energy accounts for production of goods and services.
Rise of great powers and Alliances:
- During the first industrial revolution time period, the control of coal production by Britain through its colonies helped it to build and expand its empire all over the world.
- United States of America was able to sustain post revolution owing to the rich energy resources available in the regions of Pennsylvania, Detroit, Rocky- mountains and so on.
- The newly emerged Germany, Italy were in control of rich sources of coal, iron in regions like Rhine valley leading to the rise of new empires.
- Most of the west Asian countries like Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq and so on were built on account of abundant oil and natural gas present in the region.
- The western alliance like that between USA and Turkey or Saudi Arabia and others hinges on the oil diplomacy.
- OIC was formed between nations to control the production of oil which is the key element of the alliance.
- Even Indian relation with several countries like UAE, Qatar, Venezuela etc., is friendly for the reason of energy resources. Also, India is maintaining friendly relation with both Iran and Saudi Arabia who are traditional rivals.
- The rich energy resources in Africa has attracted the hand of alliance from countries like China, India, Japan and others who have invested and launched programs like Asia-Africa Growth corridor and so on.
- Lately, formation of international solar alliance is an example of energy-based alliance. Similarly, several European countries have aligned together for renewable energy production.
Causing war and conflicts:
- France conflicted with Germany over the control of Rhineland (source of coal) post worldwar1 which is also a reason for rise of Hitler.
- The gulf wars were fought for the control of oil in the west Asian region.
- The major events during the cold war period like the Iranian revolution, USA’s invasion of Afghanistan has energy control as the hidden agenda. Toppling of governments were sponsored by USA and USSR during the period in countries like Egypt so as to have a control on energy resources.
- Civil war in Nigeria and Sudan were fought for the reason of control of energy resources.
- The discovery of shale gas in the arctic region has led to several global and regional conflicts like that between Russia and northern European countries, USA and so on.
- The rivalry between the western countries and regional countries like Iran is mainly on account of oil resources in the region. For the same reasons, intra-regional rivalry like that between Iran and Saudi Arabia exists.
Almost every conflict that has been fought or been fighting has an angle of control of energy resources. Be it be Russia-Ukraine conflict, South china sea conflict or even the conflict between developed and developing countries over the renewable energy adoption to fight the climate change, energy has and will always play the major role in global geopolitics.