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Day 66 – Q 5.What do you understand by vocational training? Why is it so vital for our country? Examine.

5. What do you understand by vocational training? Why is it so vital for our country? Examine. 

व्यावसायिक प्रशिक्षण से आप क्या समझते हैं? यह हमारे देश के लिए इतना महत्वपूर्ण क्यों है? की जांच करें।


Vocational Education can be defined as the education that is based on occupation and employment. Vocational Education is also known as career and technical education (CTE) or technical and vocational education and training (TVET). The nodal agency for granting the recognition to the I.T.I. is NCVT, which is under the Ministry of Labour, Govt. of India.

Objectives of vocational training

  • Enhance the employability of youth through demand driven competency based modular vocational courses.
  • Maintain their competitiveness through provisions of multi-entry multi-exit learning opportunities and vertical mobility/ interchangeability in qualifications.
  • Fill the gap between educated and employable.
  • Reduce the dropout rate at the secondary level.

Skill India is a campaign launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 15 July 2015 which aim to train over 40 crore people in India in different skills by 2022. It includes various initiatives of the government like

  • National Skill Development Mission
  • National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, 2015
  • Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)
  • Skill Loan scheme


Problem areas of Vocational Education in India?

  • There is a high dropout rate at Secondary level.
  • Vertical mobility after the skills obtained is less.
  • Employers mostly tend to prefer young workers with strong basic academic skills and not just vocational skills.
  • Private Industry Participation is lacking.
  • Lack of continuous skill up-gradation.
  • Experienced and qualified teachers to train students on vocational skills are not sufficient.
  • Poor quality of training most of the times is not in line with industry needs.

Why vocational training is so vital for our country

  • Demographic Dividend: India has 65% of its youth in the working age group. Efficient utilization of these population would promote saving and investment rate
  • Meet employer need of skills: The latest India skill Report indicates that only about 47% coming out of educational institutions are employable.
  • A useful vocational education in agriculture, coupled with access to the formal economy for finance and marketing, could raise the quality of life. AGRI-UDAAN programme to promote innovation and entrepreneurship in agriculture is a step in the right direction. 
  • Prepare workers for a decent livelihood: this improves India’s ranking in HDI
  • Low-skilled and repetitive jobs are bound to be eliminated by robots and artificial intelligence under the Fourth Industrial Revolution. This scenario is forcing technical and vocational education and training (TVET) institutions to evolve continuously and sustainably to remain relevant in the future. World class productivity and quality
  • For Make in India – It give big opportunity for MNCs to come to India
  • Export of skilled workforce to aging developing countries
    • The study titled ‘Global Talent Crunch’ highlighted that India would have a talent surplus of around 245.3 million workers by 2030 at a time when the Asia-Pacific region itself would face a talent deficit of 47 million workers.

What are the Government Initiatives in the area of vocational education?

  • To stimulate and support reforms in skills development and to facilitate nationally standardized and acceptable, international comparability of qualifications, a “National Vocational Qualifications Framework” (NVQF) is being established by the Central Government. Several states have initiated vocational education programmes operated in alignment with NVQF.
  • National Skill Development Corporation India (NSDC) is a one of the kinds of Public Private Partnership in India. It aims to promote skill development by catalysing creation of large, quality, for-profit vocational institutions.
  • Ministry for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship has launched the Skills Assessment Matrix for Vocational Advancement of Youth (SAMVAY) that provides seamless movement from education to skill. 
  • A scheme for skilling the unemployed youth in engineering skills using the facility of the technical institutions has been launched as a part of the PM Kaushal Vikas Yojana(PMKVY).
  • Gram Tarang – Targeting tribal/naxal affected areas. Training centres created to train people in Auto CAD, advanced welding on advance machinery funded by NSDC.

Case Study

Successful Vocational education model in Germany – ‘classroom instruction plus apprentice training’

  • The German system of Dual Vocational Education and Training (VET) has proven itself to be successful over the last centuries.
  • It is placed to bridge the gap between the increasing need for theoretical knowledge and real world application of these skills.
  • The German system encourages the direct involvement and ownership of the industry in the educational process and is in demand all over the globe – also in India.
  • VET plays a vital role in India’s further development, especially in the light of government’s “Make in India” campaign.


ASER’s statistics indicate that overall, only 5.3% of the age group is enrolled in a vocational course, while 60.2% of out-of-school youth are engaged in some form of work. These trends underscore the need to scale up substantive skill-building programmes. A National Vocational Policy should establish equivalence for degrees, diplomas and certifications in the vocational education sector for lateral and vertical mobility.

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