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Day 74 – Q 2. What are the most essential components of disaster preparedness? Explain with the help of suitable examples.

2. What are the most essential components of disaster preparedness? Explain with the help of suitable examples. 

आपदा तैयारियों के सबसे आवश्यक घटक क्या हैं? उपयुक्त उदाहरणों की सहायता से समझाएँ।


Disaster preparedness refers to measures taken to prepare for and reduce the effects of disasters. India is one of the most disaster-prone country as per the latest UNISDR report. Disaster preparedness is vital in this context to minimise the vulnerability and effective response.


Components of disaster preparedness:

  • Disaster mapping: Listing potential emergencies and ranking them in regards to importance and likelihood is essential to knowing what to do and what resources to invest. E.g. map of earthquake based on intensity would help plan building earthquake resilient buildings like in Japan.
  • Clear communication: Between the different stakeholders inside and outside the organization. Communication infrastructure should be built in a way to withhold the disaster impact. E.g. DISNIC project with communication network between various stakeholders like NDMA, district administration, home ministry etc.,
  • Comprehensive training: for the staff to handle disaster as well as to include community explaining the preparedness, mitigation measures as well as response. This also include building a team with dedicated roles. 
  • Knowledge of assets: specially the healthcare and communication infrastructure to make the disaster response resilient to disaster impact. 
  • Technology fail-safes and protocol: maintaining the physical space, access to files and software systems. For e.g. maintenance of health records in cloud.
  • Emergency plan and beforehand communication to the community and the relevant stakeholders. Also, the critical information and plans should be effectively communicated in time to avert disaster loss. E.g. clear communication and evacuation in time saved the lives during Odisha cyclone few years back.
  • Testing the plan: Lectures and response session, mock drills will help in proper implementation of procedures designed.
  • Humanitarian agencies connection: humanitarian agencies are often called upon to deal with immediate response and recovery. To be able to respond effectively, these agencies must have experienced leaders, trained personnel, adequate transport and logistic support, appropriate communications, and guidelines for working in emergencies. E.g.  Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief, Doctors Without Borders etc.,


“It is not the disaster, but the lack of preparedness to disaster that kills”. The goal of emergency preparedness programs is to achieve a satisfactory level of readiness to respond to any emergency situation through programs that strengthen the technical and managerial capacity of governments, organizations, and communities. Thus, disaster preparedness is one of the most vital component in disaster management.

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