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Day 83 – Q 3. How do temperate cyclones affect the weather pattern in the Indian subcontinent? Explain.

3. How do temperate cyclones affect the weather pattern in the Indian subcontinent? Explain.

भारतीय उपमहाद्वीप में शीतोष्ण चक्रवात मौसम के मिजाज को कैसे प्रभावित करते हैं? समझाएं।


The systems developing in the mid and high latitude (35° latitude and 65° latitude in both hemispheres), beyond the tropics are called the Temperate Cyclones or Extra Tropical Cyclones or Mid-Latitude Cyclones or Frontal Cyclones or Wave Cyclones.

Much of the highly variable & Cloudy weather in temperate zone is direct result of these travelling cyclones, so called temperate cyclone. It is in these latitude zones that the polar and tropical air masses meet and form polar fronts, most of these cyclone form wavelike twist i.e. wave cyclone.


  • In continental Europe the largest number of winter cyclones form over the Baltic Sea and sharp contrast between the temperature of the Baltic Sea and adjoining land area leads to formation of storms in this region. Under similar condition numerous storms form over Mediterranean basin. These storms move north-eastward reaching Russia or travel to east as far as northern India. It is associated with instability so called western disturbance.
  • Western disturbances, specifically the ones in winter, bring moderate to heavy rain in low-lying areas and heavy snow to mountainous areas of the Indian Subcontinent.
  • They are the cause of most winter and pre-monsoon season rainfall across northwest India. Precipitation during the winter season has great importance in agriculture, particularly for the Rabi crops.
  • Western disturbances are usually associated with cloudy sky, higher night temperatures and unusual rain.
  • Over the Indo-Gangetic plains, they occasionally bring cold wave conditions and dense fog.
    These conditions remain stable until disturbed by another western disturbance. When western disturbances move across northwest India before the onset of monsoon, a temporary advancement of monsoon current appears over the region.


Temperate cyclones play an important role in weather pattern in the Indian subcontinent through massive heat transfer.

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