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Day 94 – Q 3.Examine the significance of border infrastructure for managing security challenges in the border regions.

3. Examine the significance of border infrastructure for managing security challenges in the border regions. 

सीमा क्षेत्रों में सुरक्षा चुनौतियों के प्रबंधन के लिए सीमा अवसंरचना के महत्व की जांच करें।


India’s land border covers around 15,106 km sharing boundaries with Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar. Varied terrains, climatic conditions and hostile neighbours make its borders complex and border management an important part of its security. 


Significance of border infrastructure for managing security challenges in the border regions

  • The deal with major border security challenges – cross-border terrorism, infiltration and exfiltration of armed militants and insurgents, narcotics and arms smuggling; illegal migration; left-wing extremism and separatist movements aided by external powers.
  • Proper border road infra will reduce trafficking and smuggling, which is currently a big cause concern for India and neighbouring countries. 
  • Border road infra helps in maintaining peace and stability by controlling the security concerns related to inter-region and intra-region issues.
  • The task of national integration which started with independence of India and still going on will be incomplete without border road infra. Connectivity and inclusivity are the important tools for national integration of far-flung areas such as Northeastern states and Ladakh, etc.
  • Another important advantage of border roads is in proper and swift disaster management. Difficult and harsh terrains of Indian borders and relatively low development of bordering countries make it inevitable for India to prepared and self-sufficient to handle any kind of disasters.
  • Insurgent groups in different parts of the country are receiving foreign support and encouragement. Illegal infiltration and smuggling of arms and explosives, narcotics and counterfeit currency are pressing problems. The porosity of our borders in many parts, makes the task of the anti-national forces much easier. All this underscores the need for utmost vigilance on the borders and strengthening the border guarding forces.
  • While landborders have from time to time received Government’s attention primarily because of the wars with Pakistan and China and the problems of insurgency, illegal migration from Bangladesh and smuggling activities, the same cannot be said of our coastal areas or of our airspace.

Recent steps taken for enhancing border management

  • Construction of fence, patrol roads, floodlighting systems and additional Border Out Posts.
  • Effective domination of the border by carrying out round the clock surveillance of the borders by patrolling, setting up of nakas (border ambushes) and by deploying observation posts all along the international borders of the country. The riverine segments of international borders of the country are being patrolled and dominated with the help of water crafts/speed boats/floating Border Out Posts (BOPs) of Border Security Force (BSF) water wings.
  • Introduction of force multipliers and Hi-Tech surveillance equipments fully equipped with day and night vision devices for further enhancing the border domination.
  • Vulnerability mapping of entire border has been made a continuous process based on which sensitive spots are identified and adequate measures are taken to further strengthen security in these spots.
  • It has also been decided to deploy technological solutions in the form of Comprehensive Integrated Border Management System(CIBMS), on a pilot basis to begin with, in different terrains on Indo-Pakistan Border and Indo-Bangladesh Border. The technological solutions are based on integration of sensors and surveillance equipments like radars, day and night vision cameras, etc. in a network architecture with command and control system.
  • Up-gradation of intelligence network and co-ordination with sister agencies, conduct of special operations along the border.
  • Raising the issues of infiltration from across the border during various meeting with counterpart countries i.e Company Commander Meeting, Commandant Level Meeting, Sector Commander Level Meeting, Frontier Level Meeting and Director-General Level Talks.


Border Area Development Program was launched under Ministry of Home Affairs to develop the regions and blocks of states which share their boundaries with other countries and to take care of their special needs and circumstances by providing them with 100% non-lapsable grants for execution of projects relating to infrastructure, livelihood, education, health, agriculture etc. Development of these regions are crucial for the larger purpose of making the borders secure by utilizing the capacity and infrastructure of these regions as well as integrating the people in India through development

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