Day 40 – Q 5. What are the institutional/ structural factors behind corruption in India? How can those be addressed? Examine.
5. What are the institutional/ structural factors behind corruption in India? How can those be addressed? Examine.
भारत में भ्रष्टाचार के पीछे संस्थागत / संरचनात्मक कारक क्या हैं? उन्हें कैसे संबोधित किया जा सकता है? जांच करें।
Corruption is the deliberate and intentional exploitation of one’s position, status or reserves, directly or indirectly, for personal aggrandizement, whether it is in terms of material gain, enhancement of power, prestige, or influence beyond what is legitimate, to the detriment, or, the interest of other persons, or the community, as a whole.
Corruption in India is all pervasive. There are very few activities in the nation that are perceived to be free from this malaise. This is reflected in India’s poor ranking in corruption perception index place of 81st among 180 countries.
Institutional/structural factors behind corruption in India
- Cumbersome administrative process leads to delay which encourages the growth of dishonest practices such as giving speed money to dishonest officials.
- The system of governance which lacks transparency; accountability; grievance redressal mechanisms.
- Weak institutions. Example: CBI suffers from lack of autonomy and is termed as ‘Caged Parrot’ by Supreme Court.
- Discretionary powers available to public servants.
- Lack of proper education and training of civil servants.
- Low salaries.
- Inadequate and insufficient supervision.
- Political patronage of officials.
- Poor public opinion.
- Unwillingness of people to complain against the corrupt.
Measures to address:
- Instil values: best way to nip corruption in the bud.
- Electoral reforms: clean electoral sys = clean governance.
- Tax reforms: a reasonable and transparent tax structure will minimise evasion.
- Pay public officials well: most public servants are overworked and underpaid.
- Police and Judicial reforms.
- A faster and more efficient justice delivery system.
2nd ARC recommendations:
- Strengthen PCA, 1988 : Sanction for prosecution automatic for those caught red-handed expedite for other cases; Recognize and punish collusive bribery.
- Liability of corrupt officials: they must make good the loss caused and, in addition, be liable for damages
- Protection of Whistle-blowers: criminalize harassment, victimization of, or retaliation against whistle-blowers.
- Appointment of independent ombudsman.
- Strengthen Right to Information Act.
There is ample evidence to show that corruption has slowed down economic progress and poverty alleviation initiatives in India. It has adversely affected the national security system, too. The most affected by corruption are the poorest and the most vulnerable groups. We need sustained efforts to address this menace by strengthening institutions, laws, improving governance.
Best answer: Abhishek Naik