3. What are your views on homosexuality? Is it immoral?
समलैंगिकता पर आपके विचार क्या हैं? क्या यह अनैतिक है?
Homosexuality refer’s to both attraction or sexual behavior between people of the same sex, or to a sexual orientation. Homosexuality is contrasted with heterosexuality, bisexuality and asexuality. Most scientists today agree that sexual orientation is most likely the result of a complex interaction of environmental, cognitive and biological factors.
- The term ‘homosexuality’ was coined in the late 19th century by a German psychologist, Karoly Maria Benkert. Although the term is new, discussions about sexuality in general, and same-sex attraction in particular, have occured since ancient times to contemporary period. Conventional wisdom in the west has held homosexuality as immoral behaviour and in India, the influence of Victorian morality led to immorality being attached to homosexuality.
- Broader currents in society have influenced the ways in which scholars and activists have approached sexuality and same-sex attraction. During early 20th century, people seeking to vindicate same-sex relations in societies that disparaged and criminalized it, put forward lists of famous historical figures attracted to persons of the same sex.
- At the same time, society in modern times has tried to suppress non-heterosexuality as a threat towards established social order. This led to stigma being associated with homosexuality in the form of it being considered a mental illness. Such a scenario necessitates better understanding of homosexuality in the society.
- Sexual orientation is distinct from other components of sex and gender, including biological sex (the anatomical, physiological and genetic characteristics associated with being male or female), gender identity (the psychological sense of being male or female) and social gender role (the cultural norms that define feminine and masculine behavior).
- There is no consensus among scientists about the exact reasons that an individual develops a heterosexual, bisexual, gay or lesbian orientation. Many think that nature and nurture both play complex roles; most people experience little or no sense of choice about their sexual orientation.
- Moreover, although homosexuality does not appear to be adaptive from an evolutionary standpoint, because homosexual sex does not produce children, there is evidence of its existence through human history.
- Furthermore, irrespective of one’s sexual preference, every human has a natural right towards a dignified life in society free from prejudice and discrimination.
- The contestations with regards to homosexuality have led to questions about it’s morality. Morality is a set of beliefs and practices concerned with what is understood as good and evil by an individual.
Following factors can be considered while attaching morality to homosexuality-
- Scientific evidence shows that, in many cases, people don’t choose their sexual orientations—it is in their natures to prefer sexual relations with members of the same sex, members of the opposite sex, or both. It is morally right for people to act in accordance with their natures, whether heterosexual, homosexual, or anything in-between.
- Recently, homosexuality has been decriminalised in India. Thus, constitutional morality holds that homosexuality is moral.
- Homosexuality is normal because it is as natural as heterosexuality and bisexuality and thus are just modes of healthy sexuality.
- Immorality of homosexuality is attached by some due to it’s deviation from natural order of procreation.
- Further, homosexuality is also seen against established order of society where man-woman relation forms basis of family system.
In complex interface of human relations, sexual orientation per se is neither moral nor immoral where the relevant issue is whether, given a person’s orientation, he approaches his choice in a rational, self-interested, rights-respecting manner rather than under the pressure of external forces.